Fiona McPherson's blog

Maybe it has nothing to do with self-control

I recently reported about a finding that refines a widely-reported association between self-regulation and academic achievement. This association relates to the famous ‘marshmallow test’, in which young children were left alone with a marshmallow, having been told that if they could hold off eating it until the researcher returns, they would get two marshmallows.

References: 

McGuire, J. T., & Kable, J. W. (2013). Rational Temporal Predictions Can Underlie Apparent Failures to Delay Gratification. Psychological Review, 120(2), 395–410. doi:10.1037/a0031910

Baumeister, R. F., & Scher, S. J. (1988). Self-defeating behavior patterns among normal individuals: Review and analysis of common self-destructive tendencies. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 3–22. doi:10.1037/ 0033-2909.104.1.3

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Daydreaming nurtures creativity?

Back in 2010, I read a charming article in the New York Times about a bunch of neuroscientists bravely disentangling themselves from their technology (email, cellphones, laptops, …) and going into the wilderness (rafting down the San Juan River) in order to get a better understanding of how heavy use of digital technology might change the way we think, and whether we can reverse the problem by immersing ourselves in nature.

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Seeing without words

I was listening on my walk today to an interview with Edward Tufte, the celebrated guru of data visualization. He said something I took particular note of, concerning the benefits of concentrating on what you’re seeing, without any other distractions, external or internal. He spoke of his experience of being out walking one day with a friend, in a natural environment, and what it was like to just sit down for some minutes, not talking, in a very quiet place, just looking at the scene.

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Why asking the right questions is so important, and how to do it

Research; study; learning; solving problems; making decisions — all these, to be done effectively and efficiently, depend on asking the right questions. Much of the time, however, people let others frame the questions, not realizing how much this shapes how they think.

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Should learning facts by rote be central to education?

Michael Gove is reported as saying that ‘Learning facts by rote should be a central part of the school experience’, a philosophy which apparently underpins his shakeup of school exams. Arguing that "memorisation is a necessary precondition of understanding", he believes that exams that require students to memorize quantities of material ‘promote motivation, solidify knowledge, and guarantee standards’.

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The value of intensive practice

Let’s talk about the cognitive benefits of learning and using another language.

In a recent news report, I talked about the finding that intensive learning of a very novel language significantly grew several brain regions, of which two were positively associated with language proficiency. These regions were the right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus. Growth of the first of these probably reflects the learning of a great many new words, and the second may reflect heavy use of the phonological loop (a part of working memory).

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When are two (or more) heads better than one?

We must believe that groups produce better results than individuals — why else do we have so many “teams” in the workplace, and so many meetings. But many of us also, of course, hold the opposite belief: that most meetings are a waste of time; that teams might be better for some tasks (and for other people!), but not for all tasks. So what do we know about the circumstances that make groups better value?

References: 

Bahrami, B., Olsen K., Latham P. E., Roepstorff A., Rees G., & Frith C. D. (2010).  Optimally Interacting Minds. Science. 329(5995), 1081 - 1085.

Basden, B.H., Basden, D.R., Bryner, S. & Thomas, R.L. III (1997). A comparison of group and individual remembering: Does collaboration disrupt retrieval strategies? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23, 1176-1189.

Kirschner, F., Paas F., & Kirschner P. A. (2010).  Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology. n/a-n/a - n/a-n/a.

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & DeChurch L. A. (2009).  Information Sharing and Team Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. 94(2), 535 - 546.

Ormerod, T. 2005. The way we were: situational shifts in collaborative remembering. Research project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/PO/releases/2005/march/...
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2005-03/esr-wic032305.php

Weldon, M.S. & Bellinger, K.D. (1997). Collective and individual processes in remembering. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23, 1160-1175.

Woolley, A. W., Chabris C. F., Pentland A., Hashmi N., & Malone T. W. (2010).  Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups. Science. science.1193147 - science.1193147.

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Improving attention through nature

Until recent times, attention has always been quite a mysterious faculty. We’ve never doubted attention mattered, but it’s only in the past few years that we’ve appreciated how absolutely central it is for all aspects of cognition, from perception to memory. The rise in our awareness of its importance has come in the wake of, and in parallel with, our understanding of working memory, for the two work hand-in-hand.

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